Provenance

Cannabis Supply Chain Traceability dApp

provenance” (noun)  the place of origin or earliest known history of something

The primary impetus for this dApp is to provide a global, generic, voluntary standard of cannabis supply reporting on the blockchain suitable for use by all trading partners to facilitate the identification of and communication between growers and dispensaries, their products and to maintain an unalterable product record. If adopted by several members of an extended supply chain; products and data – including information regarding provenance, shelf life, and lab test results – can be permanently recorded on the PUFFScoin blockchain through each progressive event related to the product; facilitating the seamless flow of information alongside the flow of actual goods.

The Provenance dApp will provide all relevant participants of the cannabis supply chain, as well as consumers with the capacity to see the originating grower operation, genetic heritage and test results for THC/CBD levels as well as clear results for solvents and pesticides present within the product, both in their own locations and across the entire supply chain.

At the simplest level, each item will be coded for identification by supplying each plant a unique identifier, represented by a contract address on the PUFFScoin blockchain (example: 0xcd2a3d9f938e13cd947ec05abc7fe734df8dd826). This identification address can be applied and referrenced along every stage of cannabis production and distribution. It is used to identify products and services. While the most visible aspect of item coding is the QR-code associated with the plants PUFFScoin address, it is the most important element in the Provenance application as this scannable QR-code identifies, specifically, the exact plant to which it is assigned.

The Provenance codification system will provide a globally unique identification system which is directly accessible via API through the PUFFScoin smart phone wallet. For growers, dispensary owners and consumers alike this overcomes problems of confusion, duplication, and misinterpretation, because all users of the Provenance distributed application follow the same codification rules. A Provenance QR-Code can be scanned and interacted with not only by local trading partner companies, but by companies operating overseas as well. Each code is unique, so there is no possibility of confusion. The Provenance codification system also provides the ability for items to also carry, within the coding convention, extra or attributable information pertaining to the item.

Provenance carries data which allow supply chain participants to track and trace products. The application of these standards requires manufacturers, importers/exporters, carriers, distributors, labs, and retailers to keep records of specific plant addresses, the identity of the growers behind them, specific strain and plant identification and information, and retail level QRcodes.

The data relayable from each address will include:

  • seed company or clone provider,
  • the name of cannabis strain,
  • information regarding the plant cultivator and producers of extracts, edibles and other non-consumable products,
  • results from THC/CBD tests as well as reports regarding pesticide and solvent presence,
  • the finished product identifier,
  • its date of production, and
  • its destination dispensary.

Each seed company, clone provider, grower, etc. will have their own unique PUFFScoin address associated with their overall product line to which each of their individual plant address will be linked. In cases of product recalls for health concerns or contamination, each plant linked to that facility will be easily identifiable. These addresses may be identified by simple naming processes but will remain intrinsically linked to its unique PUFFScoin address and be viewable both via API query and through the blockchain viewer.

Provenance will provide an application programming interface (API) to access a growing databasae of producers, retailers, products, reviews, lab tests, and more to the overall cannabis community. By utilizing the PUFFScoin blockchain and the Provenance application in concert with eachother, data can be collected and analyzed, and the industry can communicate effectively about individual components of the cannabis industry from the conception of cannabis strains to the consumption of products.

The Provenance API will also provide access to an ever-growing list of over strains, lineages, extracts, edibles, products, producers, seed companies, and dispensaries – with a focus towards first including those participating within the PUFFScoin economy. Our goal is to build a foundation of accurate, unbiased cannabis information and hope to include product details from large companies, genetics from small farms, and public reviews from individual consumers.

The information regarding each strain will include: NAME of the cannabis strain, its unique PUFFScoin ADDRESS, a link to the strain in the Provenance DIRECTORY, a link to its QR-CODE, a link to any IMAGE of the typical strain bud, information about the SEED COMPANY that created or provided the strain, as well as its ADDRESS and a link to our REPORT for that company.

Also included will be information regarding the strain GENETICS, its LINEAGE and OFFSPRING as well as the number of strains the one in question has been bred into, providing links to their reports as well.

Consumer reviews posted within the PUFFScoin ecosystem will be included in the strain report. This will include average effects and flavours reported for each strain in a sortable database. Availability of a strain compared to the geographical location of the client making the query will also be a fraction of data that we plan on including into the API.

Because there are diverse opinions regarding the common classification scheme used to identify cannabis strains as “indica”, “sativa” or “hybrid”, there is no consensus regarding the appropriate taxonomy of cannabis within the scientific community, and this information is not included in the strain information until such consensus might be reached.

(* or report subspecies dominance?)

Likewise THC, CBD and other relevant alkaloid percentages will not be included in the strain information as the genetics of a strain can determine whether the disposition exists to produce the chemicals relevant to consumers and producres, the overall proportion of them in a particular PLANT will vary depending on the skill of the grower, the environment the plant was grown in, the genetic phenotype of the seeds, the part of the plant being consumed and the method of processing the plant material for consumption.

We will append the results of lab tests to individual batches of product or flower, but it should be recognized that while an average magnitude of alkaloids can be determined for a strain, actual results will vary from crop to crop.

Cannabis flowers (or plants) are each very distinct, and each batch will maintain its own PUFFScoin address to be queried by the Provenance system. The data regarding flowers will be linked directly to the cultivator responsible for growing the plant, while also maintainint a connection to the original genetics of the strain. Designating individual plants or batches as distinct items on the blockchain improves our ability to (view) the flower quality that can be produced from the same cannabis strain at different farms and geographical limits.

Relevant information regarding each plant will include its status as organic, whether it was grown indoors or outside, the seed stock it originated from, or if it was produced from a clone. If a lab test has been perfomed on the batch, the percentages or THC and CBD evident in the plant will be included as well as a link to the file, registered on the blockchain, containing the lab test results for the flower in question.

Consumer reviews for this flower or batch will also be available.

Provenance will recognize 10 (ten) types of extracts. Each extract is tied to the strain it is created from and the producer responsible for creating it. Extracts are products which contain concentrated cannabinoids and are considered much more potent than flowers. These extracts include:

~KIEF – a powedery accumulation of trichomes dislodged from handling the plant
~HASH – a solid and sticky resin
~WATER HASH – processed in a similar fashion to hash, refined using cold water
~OIL – sticky, honey-like consistency processed using Butane or CO2
~WAX – earwax consistency yielded by whipping oil during the purging stage of the extraction process
~CRUMBLE – very potent wax concentrated into a crumbly consistency
~HONEYCOMB – concentrate named for its porous structure
~SHATTER – semi-transparent with brittle consistency, essentially a highly-refined form of hash oil with as much plant matter and solvent residue removed as possible
~DISPOSABLE VAPE – strain-specific one-time use vape pen
~VAPE CARTRIDGE – strain-specific one-time use cartridges for standard vape pens

Cannabis edibles covers a wide variety of consumable producyts that contain cannabis in various forms. The main forms of edibles that are referrenced with categories through Provenance are:
-baked goods
-candy
-treats
-chocolates
-snacks
-beverages
-pills
-tinctures
-other (butter, honey, breath strips, tea, ice cream)

The measured amount of cannabis present in edibles is recorded in a variety of ways. Provenance will record THC/mg, CBD/mg, Cannabis/mg and Hash Oil/mg.

Products made with cannabis in various froms, that would not be consumed as an edible or extract would fall into this category. This would include pre-rolled joints, bath products, topical creams, skin care products, lip balms, massage oils and personal lubricants.

Provenance will record the measured amount of cannabis present in these products in units of THC/mg, CBD/mg, Cannabis/mg and Hash Oil/mg.

These entities will also have listing in the Provenance database, each uniquely identified and possessive of listings of the products they produce or sell. Consumer and industy reviews will be available through links to the same within the PUFFScoin cannabis social communities.

THE CANNABIS SUPPLY CHAIN MODEL

The cannabis supply chain can be broken down into the following key areas:

– Extract, edible, and non-consumables producers are responsible for taking fresh or dried cannabis plant and processing it into finished goods, or taking previously treated and extracted cannabis and further processing it into finished goods. Some companies perform their own extraction methods and others acquire third-party extractions and use them for their products. Producers are responsible for record keeping and appropriate information about the production, testing, and delivery of goods along the supply chain.

These details include information about where the cannabis contents came from that were used to create the producer’s final products. If the production company is performing their own extractions, or generating cannabis extractions destined for the consumer, then details regarding that production process are vital. The Provenance-linked source of the cannabis, including the production records of those plants, must be available in a transparent manner to ensure proper quality control and safety precautions are being followed throughout the extraction and production process.

Key data points for traceability regarding extract, edible, and non-consumable producers are identification of the production company, the originating sources of cannabis that went into the products, and lab testing information. All communications and paperwork regarding the purchasing, transport, and ultimate consumption or use of products should carry appropriate PUFFScoin identifiers information and have easily accessible lab test results and grow production information available.

The source cannabis material should be identified by strain, and for greatest transparency, the actual batches of source materials should be identified and associated .

Seed or Clone Providers
– responsible for the acquisition and hybridization of cannabis strains necessary to create the effects and flavors that appear in cannabis. They are responsible for the distribution and harvesting of seeds and clones, as well as record keeping regarding the genetic heritage and lineage that went into the strains used to produce the seeds or clones. Relevant data about these seeds or conditions of clone source should be available on request, and included in the Provenance data system for each unique address.

The tendency for a strain of cannabis to produce different ratios of phytocannabinoids, flavonoids, and other terpenes is based on both the seed genetics and the overall conditions experienced during cultivation. Due to this, it will become essential to build a comprehensive record to understand and build upon successes or failures regarding the lineages of different strains of cannabis found throughout the world.

Seed and clone providers will also be listed, through links in the product provenance, as producers for the seeds and clones that go into other finished products, or for those that are sold directly at the retail level. They should also supply information about cultivation expectations including estimated flowering time and ideal growing conditions for consumers and producer alike.

Due to the multitude of different names currently available for strains of cannabis, there is considerable overlap in the naming schemes among seed and strain producers that cannot be discounted. Therefore, the Provenance application includes and requires the identification by both the source of genetics, as well as the name of the strain, to ensure accuracy and correct representation. Links to the seed or clones parentage addresses must be included to produce a consistent cannabis family tree.

The following information should be associated to each seed and clone contract address:
• Name of the source of genetics or seed company
• Name of the strain of cannabis
• Direct parental lineage of the strain and links to their blockchain representation.

The production of seeds and clones to be available on the retail market should contain identifiers and codes to allow for accurate consumer identification. On packaging for seeds or on labeling for clones, the unique PUFFScoin QR-code should be attached for identification and retrieval of information on a per batch basis.

Seed or Clone Providers
– responsible for the acquisition and hybridization of cannabis strains necessary to create the effects and flavors that appear in cannabis. They are responsible for the distribution and harvesting of seeds and clones, as well as record keeping regarding the genetic heritage and lineage that went into the strains used to produce the seeds or clones. Relevant data about these seeds or conditions of clone source should be available on request, and included in the Provenance data system for each unique address.

The tendency for a strain of cannabis to produce different ratios of phytocannabinoids, flavonoids, and other terpenes is based on both the seed genetics and the overall conditions experienced during cultivation. Due to this, it will become essential to build a comprehensive record to understand and build upon successes or failures regarding the lineages of different strains of cannabis found throughout the world.

Seed and clone providers will also be listed, through links in the product provenance, as producers for the seeds and clones that go into other finished products, or for those that are sold directly at the retail level. They should also supply information about cultivation expectations including estimated flowering time and ideal growing conditions for consumers and producer alike.

Due to the multitude of different names currently available for strains of cannabis, there is considerable overlap in the naming schemes among seed and strain producers that cannot be discounted. Therefore, the Provenance application includes and requires the identification by both the source of genetics, as well as the name of the strain, to ensure accuracy and correct representation. Links to the seed or clones parentage addresses must be included to produce a consistent cannabis family tree.

The following information should be associated to each seed and clone contract address:
• Name of the source of genetics or seed company
• Name of the strain of cannabis
• Direct parental lineage of the strain and links to their blockchain representation.

The production of seeds and clones to be available on the retail market should contain identifiers and codes to allow for accurate consumer identification. On packaging for seeds or on labeling for clones, the unique PUFFScoin QR-code should be attached for identification and retrieval of information on a per batch basis.

– Cannabis cultivators and growers are responsible for the production, harvest, and delivery of the cannabis plant. Often, the processing of the cannabis plants is done by the cultivators themselves. They are responsible for record keeping, allowing cultivation treatment details or operation certification details should be available on request.

Since traceability does not, in and of itself, confer a guarantee of product quality, disciplined record keeping to the Provenance database will be a key success factor for the overall project. It will be essential for participating growers keep records for each plot of cannabis under their control. These records should include details regarding the geographical location, strain and care of the cannabis, production record, seed origin, and chemical content of water used for cleaning and irrigation and the treatment records which includes all fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides, and/or other treatments carried out. Products from suppliers used in the production of cannabis should have a maintained record containing a description of the product received and used, as well as applicable batch numbers if necessary.

The key data required for supply chain traceability purposes are the identifyers of the farm and plot from which the cannabis comes, its harvest date, and the strain of cannabis cultivated. When new batches of cannabis are harvested, they should be tested and assigned a PUFFScoin address through the appropriate Provenance contract. The date of harvest and the PDF link to the lab test results should also be included with the blockchain information related to the contract address.

Lab test results should contain phytocannabinoid contents, terpene contents, as well as pesticide and solvent residual testing results for each individual batch of cannabis. Finished products intended for sale directly after this stage of processing should contain labeling that includes the associated PUFFScoin address QR-code to allow retailer and consumer access to the Provenance information. If the products are not intended for direct retail sale, the PUFFScoin address QR-code related to the particular batch should be attached to labeling for shipping and handling, for all receipts and for delivery of the finished batch to retailers.

– responsible for the phytocannibinoid analysis of cannabis plant material and finished products. There are several methodologies which exist for the testing of cannabis products from flowers, to extracts and edibles, and for bath and beauty products. The results of these lab tests are provided in various formats to production companies, retailers, and consumers to assist the understanding of the contents of their cannabis products or plants.

Accurate analysis of cannabis is absolutely necessary for consumer safety. The methods for testing cannabis in its various forms are evolving at a rapid pace. Lab testing facilities greatly differ in their equipment, capacities, and standards throughout North America and the rest of the world. While the PUFFScoin project cannot impose standards on how these labs are operated or conducted, this information should be made available, and when it is appropriate for testing to occur to maintain the quality and safety of cannabis products throughout the supply and production chain.

The important data for cannabis testing that should be included in Provenance reports can be narrowed down to three main categories:
• Cannabinoid (phtyocannabinoid) contents like tetrahydrocannabinol in its acidic and non-acidic form (THC, and THC-A) or cannabidiol in its acidic and non-acidic form (CBD and CBD-A) as well as others.
• Other terpene and flavonoid content like myrcene, limonene, linalool which produce flavors and aromas and have been shown to have other biochemical effects.
• Harmful residual pesticide or other chemical contents presence tests.

Each lab test report should be recorded on the PUFFScoin blockchain using Swarm, and should contain the following information:
• Name and location of lab testing facility
• Date of test
• Methods of tests conducted
• Contact details for the lab testing facility
• Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content
• Cannabidiol (CBD) content
• Negative results for harmful agricultural and processing residual chemicals

Each report, as well as raw data for important chemical markers should be associated with a finished batch of a product and the appropriate PUFFScoin address for that product. The lab testing results should be available and easily accessible via QR-code for all products which cross a point of sale to ensure consumer safety and product efficacy.

– responsible for packaging, distributing, testing, or other tasks depending on the legal or regulatory requirements in their operating environments. For these distributors, it is essential to keep proper records about intake, delivery, and distribution for both products destined for consumers or products destined for further processing.

Accurate information regarding the volume of goods, their sources, and the production of goods – throughout the handling of
incoming and outgoing products from within their services and locations. Record of receipt and transfer should be kept for the intake and distribution of all finished goods. Product packaging should carry the product’s PUFFScoin address QR-code Identifier, which will link further information such as date of production, and type of product as well as additional information such as the treatment of any bulk product including packaging, washing, chemicals used for cleaning, etc, should be recorded and maintained.

Trade items crossing the point of sale should be identified with a PUFFScoin QRcode identifier, and bar coded with a consumer UPC symbol for scanning transfer status of product on the blockchain directly at the point of sale at participating establishments. If details about the production or contents of the product cannot be placed on the packaging, due to advertising regulatory constraints in Canada for example, the product’s PUFFScoin QR-code should be made available on the unit for further identification and unimpeachable traceability information.

The preferred placement for the product’s PUFFScoin QRcode symbol would be on the same horizontal plane as the UPC-A symbol and as close as possible to the main symbol while maintaining the quiet zones for those symbols. For containers that are not intended be sold through a retail point of sale, identification can be achieved done through the product’s PUFFScoin QRcode which encodes the provenential information regarding the product, including its date of production, strain type, grower, and seed provider.

– are responsible for the distribution of cannabis products to consumers. These include recreational and medical cannabis dispensaries, delivery services, or other retail locations where cannabis products are sold. They are responsible for the intake, inventory, tracking, and accurate record keeping to ensure the safety of their consumers as well as maintain accurate records for regulatory compliance in their jurisdiction. Retailers may also be responsible for the packaging, dispensing,
labelling, testing, or other areas of the cannabis supply chain, depending on their personal business model.

As the recreational cannabis legislative environment is becoming more entrenched globally, more and more dispensaries are opening up. Nations and states where cannabis has found legal status have seen tremendous surges in storefront cannabis dispensaries opening. While government regulation hopes to maintain a strict licensing regime for retail cannabis outlets, these storefront locations and mail-order dispensaries have perhaps the largest responsibility along the whole of the supply chain.

The owners of dispensaries and retail cannabis storefronts are largely been responsible for the consumer-level education, quality control, and distribution of finished goods to consumers and patients. To help accurately identify, inventory, and educate consumers and patients, participating retailers should try to ensure proper labelling. This verifiable and immutable traceability reaches consumers and patients in ways that allow them to ensure the safety of the product they are purchasing, and the efficacy of products they are purchasing or consuming.

Record of incoming goods should be kept, supplementing information about the seed supplier, producer and any pertinent lab testing information and records from the transfer of goods towards sale. Labeling should include access to the product’s PUFFScoin QRcode address on the receipt of purchase or on the packaging itself. For packaged goods, the consumer standard UPC-A barcode should also be available for point of sale scanning.

The most important member of the supply chain model is the end user.

• Consumer

– the consumer must be provided access to credible information regarding the verifiable traceability of the cannabis products
that they are using or consuming. To ensure the ability for a market where independent and small businesses can continue to thrive and operate, and a cannabis industry that can continue to support such a wide variety of strains, products, and non-consumables, it is essential to ensure traceability is easily accessible and available to all sizes and types of producers throughout the cannabis supply chain.

Through the use of the product’s PUFFScoin QR-code and other identifiers, with access to immutable blockchain records and reviews, it is possible to ensure the uncensorable availability of industry-grade information regarding the source and lab testing results for all participants and crowd-sourced reviews.

With availability of cannabis products becoming mainstream and out of medical-only consumption, it is important to allow for accurate traceability of products entering the marketplace. Without easy access to verifiable traceability and full data transparency, participants throughout the cannabis supply chain will not be able to operate on equal playing fields.
Additionally, consumers will not have the ability to properly inform themselves regarding their use or consumption of cannabis products. As an example, pesticide usage on cannabis products have the potential for long-standing health effects, but consumers do not have a simple and standardized method to ensure that the product they are consuming or using has not been treated with pesticides and fungicides. Allowing incentivized and equal participation in a distributed, global, and rapidly growing industry is essential for continued innovation, safety, and allows for the diversity of produced cannabis strains to continue thriving.

Consumers should be provided access to the product’s PUFFScoin QRcode identifier for Provenance on all cannabis containing products they use or consume. This will allow them to know where the individual components of their finished products originate from, will provide them with assurances regarding the veracity of lab testing results of products, and allow for producers to accurately represent themselves and describe their products to their consumers in the absence of the ability to do so through labelling or education.

With states and legal entities demanding this data to be tracked while not offering easy consumer access and identification, there stands to be more transparent and traceable ways of ensuring equal access to tracking and traceability data for consumers, lawmakers, and business owners alike. Information provided by participants into the Provenance supply chain dApp should also include contact information for consumers related to the various levels of producers of the product.